A series of research studies has been carried out to investigate the effects of NR-5™ technology and REGENERATE Enamel Science™ products. Some key findings are outlined below.

Forms new hydroxyapatite mineral directly onto enamel surface

Forms new hydroxyapatite mineral directly onto enamel surface

The effect of REGENERATE Enamel Science™ Advanced Toothpaste was assessed using a clinical in situ protocol where enamel samples were placed and maintained in the mouth for the study duration, then removed for laboratory analysis. This approach combines the advantages of sample exposure to the natural oral environment with the ability to evaluate effects using a variety of sensitive and accurate laboratory methods that are not feasible in vivo.

After twice daily brushing with Advanced Toothpaste for 4 weeks, scanning electron micrographs (SEM) consistently showed areas of hydroxyapatite mineral deposited on the enamel surface. However, new mineral formation was not seen on enamel samples brushed with fluoride-only toothpaste.

Sun Y, Li X, Deng Y, Sun JN, Tao D, Chen H, Hu Q, Liu R, Liu W, Feng X, Wang J, Carvell M, Joiner A. Mode of action studies on the formation of enamel minerals from a novel toothpaste containing calcium silicate and sodium phosphate salts. Journal of Dentistry 2014;42(Suppl 1):S30-8. READ MORE

New hydroxyapatite has identical composition to underlying enamel mineral

New hydroxyapatite has identical composition to underlying enamel mineral

Several different methods were used to evaluate the newly formed mineral on enamel samples following twice daily brushing with REGENERATE Enamel Science™ Advanced Toothpaste for 4 weeks in situ.

The new mineral had similar rod-like crystal morphology compared with underlying enamel, when viewed by transmission electron microscopy (see figure A). Chemical composition of the deposited mineral and the underlying enamel was almost identical, as shown by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (see figure B). The main elements detected in both were calcium, phosphate, and oxygen, consistent with the composition of hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2]. Electron diffraction patterns also confirmed that crystal symmetry in both the new mineral and the underlying enamel was consistent with hydroxyapatite (see figure C).

NR-5™ is the first and only technology clinically proven to form new hydroxyapatite directly onto enamel surface, with identical composition to underlying enamel hydroxyapatite.

Sun Y, Li X, Deng Y, Sun JN, Tao D, Chen H, Hu Q, Liu R, Liu W, Feng X, Wang J, Carvell M, Joiner A. Mode of action studies on the formation of enamel minerals from a novel toothpaste containing calcium silicate and sodium phosphate salts. Journal of Dentistry 2014;42(Suppl 1):S30-8. READ MORE

43%* better remineralisation with Advanced Enamel Serum

43%* better remineralisation with Advanced Enamel Serum

The effect of the products on enamel remineralisation has been evaluated using in vitro methods. Enamel samples were first softened using citric acid and positioned close together to simulate the interproximal environment in the mouth. Following treatment with products, change in microhardness was measured at intervals, to assess enamel remineralisation.

REGENERATE Enamel Science™ Advanced Toothpaste significantly increased hardness of the acid-softened enamel and this effect was boosted by 43% after 3 days, when used in combination with REGENERATE Enamel Science™ Advanced Enamel Serum.

Bodfel Jones S, Davies M, Chapman N, Willson R, Hornby K, Joiner A, West NX. Introduction of an interproximal mineralisation model to measure remineralisation caused by novel formulations containing calcium silicate, sodium phosphate salts and fluoride. Journal of Dentistry 2014;42(Suppl 1):S46-52. READ MORE

*Based on a 3 day in-vitro test measuring enamel micro hardness with combined use of Advanced Toothpaste and Advanced Enamel Serum vs Advanced Toothpaste only.

82%** recovery of enamel hardness after 3 days

82%** recovery of enamel hardness after 3 days

A further in vitro remineralisation test was carried out. First, the microhardness of enamel samples was assessed before and after softening with an erosive-like citric acid challenge. Samples were then treated with REGENERATE Enamel Science™ Advanced Toothpaste and REGENERATE Enamel Science™ Advanced Enamel Serum under conditions mimicking resting salivary flow rates. Surface microhardness of enamel was measured at intervals.

Treatment with the Advanced Toothpaste in combination with the Advanced Enamel Serum provided significant increase in enamel hardness, with 82% recovery after 3 days.

Hornby K, Ricketts SR, Philpotts CJ, Joiner A, Schemehorn B, Willson R. Enhanced enamel benefits from a novel toothpaste and dual phase gel containing calcium silicate and sodium phosphate salts. Journal of Dentistry 2014;42(Suppl 1):S39-45. READ MORE

**Based on an in-vitro test measuring enamel hardness after 3 days combined use of Toothpaste and Serum.

Clinically proven more effective than a standard fluoride toothpaste†

Clinically proven more effective than a standard fluoride toothpaste†

A double-blind, randomised, controlled cross-over clinical in situ study was carried out to assess product effects on remineralisation of citric acid-challenged enamel.

Enamel microhardness was measured before and after twice daily brushing with REGENERATE Advanced ToothpasteTM in combination with daily application of REGENERATE Advanced Enamel SerumTM for 3 consecutive days, or brushing with a standard fluoride toothpaste*.

Brushing with Advanced Toothpaste together with applying Advanced Enamel Serum showed significantly greater re-hardening of enamel compared with brushing with standard fluoride toothpaste*.

Fluoride at 1450 ppm

Joiner A, Schäfer F, Naeeni MM, Gupta AK, Zero DT. Remineralisation effect of a dual-phase calcium silicate/phosphate gel combined with calcium silicate/phosphate toothpaste on acid-challenged enamel in situ. Journal of Dentistry 2014;42(Suppl 1):S53-59. READ MORE